Asteraceae . . . . . . Daisy family Part 1 (to Part 2, to Part 3)


Asteraceae all have compound flowers where each apparent flower comprises a number of individual florets. In some such as Daisies and Ragworts these include both ray florets and central tubular florets, other such as dandelions have only flat ray florets (ligules), while others such as thistles only have the tubular florets.


Choose from:

Choose by flower colour:-


      See also:

Asteraceae-blue, mauve to purple flowers

Centaurea
Michaelmas Daisy
Sea Aster
Erigeron

Cicerbita
Cichorium
Petasites
Cirsium

Echinops
Tragopogon
Cynara


Asteraceae - pink or red flowers:

Arctium
Carduus nutans
Carduus tenuiflorus
Caduus acanthoides
Burdock
Musk Thistle
Slender Thistle
Welted Thistle

Cirsium acaule
Cirsium arvense
Cirsium palustre
Cirsium vulgare
Dwarf Thistle
Creeping Thistle
Marsh Thistle
Spear Thistle

Cirsium heterophyllum
Silybum marianum
Centaurea scabiosa
Centaurea nigra
Melancholy Thistle
Milk Thistle
Greater Knapweed
Knapweed

Serratula tinctoria
Centaurea aspera
Onopordium acanthium
Symphyotrichum
Saw-wort
Rough Star-thistle
Cotton Thistle
Aster

Tripolium
Petasites
Eupatorium cannabinum
Homogyne alpina
Sea Aster
Winter Heliotrope
Hemp Agrimony
Homogyne

Saussurea alpina
Antennaria dioica
Alpine Saw-wort
Mountain Everlasting

See also :

Asteraceae - Yellow


Select the nearest yellow flower from the following 4 options:

Marigold-like
Groundsel-like
Hawk-whatevers
Daisies
Ray & disc florets
Tubular florets only
Flat florets only
Yellow disc and white rays


Ray & disc florets:


Tubular florets - groundsel-like and other flowers


Yellow "hawk-whatevers" - flat florets only: Choose from following SIX groups:

Single flower/unbranched stem
Stems with tiny bracts (cat's ears)
Stems v. bristly
Milky sap

Flower head bracts in 2 rows
Flower head bracts in several rows
     - or -
Choose by lf shape

Single flower on unbranched stem:

Tussilago
Taraxacum
Pilosella officinarum
Pilosella peleteriana


Scorzoneroides
Leontodon
Hypochaeris glabra
Hypochaeris maculata


Tragopogon

Stems leafless but with tiny bracts (Cat's-ears & Hawkbits):

Hypochaeris radicata
Hypochaeris glabra
Hypochaeris maculata
Scorzoneroides


Scorzoneroides

Stems very bristly (Oxtongues, etc.):

Picris
Helminthotheca
Lactuca virosa
Pilosella aurantiaca

Milky sap (Sowthistles, Lettuces, Dandelions, Goatsbeard):

Sonchus oleraceus
Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus asper
Sonchus palustris


Taraxacum
Tragopogon
Lactuca
Mycelis

Flower head bracts (phyllaries) in two rows (e.g. Crepis (Hawk's-beard)):

Crepis capillaris
Crepis vesicaria
Crepis paludosa
Crepis biennis


Picris
Helminthotheca

Flower head bracts (phyllaries) in several rows (e.g. Hieracium (Hawkweeds) and hawkbits):

Hieracium
Hieracium maculatum
Hieracium
Hieracium


Scorzoneroides
Leontodon
Lactuca
Pilosella aurantiaca

See also:

Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae)
Delosperma (Aizoaceae)
Agrimony (Rosaceae)

Yellow 'hawk-whatevers' by leaf shape:

Hypochaeris glabra
Hypochaeris radicata
Taraxacum
Leontodon saxatilis


Leontodon hispidus
Scorzoneroides
Crepis capillaris
Crepis biennis


Pilosella
Hypochaeris maculata
Mycelis muralis
Lapsana


Crepis paludosa
Hieracium
Hieracium
Hieracium


Helminthotheca
Picris
Lactuca virosa
Sonchus oleraceus


Sonchus asper
Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus arvensis

Asteraceae - white: Daisy-like flowers:

Achillea millefolium
Achillea ptarmica
Bellis perennis
Erigeron karvinskianus
Yarrow; Milfoil
Sneezewort
Daisy
Mexican Daisy

Leucanthemum vulgare
Tripleurospermum inodorum
Tripleurospermum maritimum
Matricaria discoidea
Ox-eye Daisy
Scentless Mayweed
Sea Mayweed
Pineappleweed

Matricaria chamomilla
Chamaemelum nobile
Galinsoga
Tanacetum parthenium
Scented Mayweed
Chamomile
Galinsoga
Feverfew

(Note that Chamomile has a strong 'Chamomile' scent)


Anthemis arvensis
Olearia avicennifolia (woody shrub)
Tanacetum macrophyllum
Cosmos bipinnatus
Corn Chamomile
Olearia
Rayed Tansy
Cosmos


Other white compound flowers:

Antennaria dioica
Achillea ptarmica
Anaphalis margaritacea
Petasites
Mountain Everlasting
Double Sneezewort
Pearly Everlasting
White Butterbur

Centaurea aspera
Erigeron
Artemisia vulgaris
Artemisia maritima
white form of Rough Star-thistle
Fleabane
Mugwort
Sea Wormwood

Cudweeds
Cudweeds
Cudweeds
Cudweeds

Greenish or non-descript flowers:

Cotula squalida
Erigeron
Cudweeds
Artemisia
NZ Buttonweed
Fleabanes
Cudweeds
Cudweeds

Artemisia
Ambrosia
Carlina
Olearia lineata
Wormwoods
Ragweed
Carline
Olearia

Matricaria discoidea
Cotula sessiis
Pineappleweed
Bindii


Cudweeds - Filago, Gnaphalium, Laphangium, Logfia, Omalotheca, Pseudognaphalium:

Small Cudweed
Cape Cudweed
Jersey Cudweed
Common Cudweed
Logfia minima
Pseudognaphalium undulatum
Laphangium luteoalbum
Filago germanica

Marsh Cudweed
Heath Cudweed
Dwarf Cudweed
Mountain Everlasting
Gnaphalium uliginosum
Omalotheca sylvatica
Omalotheca supinum
Antennaria dioica

NB G. supinum at tops of mountains; G. uliginosum in wet areas at lower altitudes

Fleabanes and mugworts

Erigeron canadensis
Erigeron floribunda
Erigeron bonariensis
Erigeron sumatrensis
Artemisia vulgaris
Canadian Fleabane
Bilbao Fleabane
Argentine Fleabane
Guernsey Fleabane
Mugwort


Mayweeds and similar:

Cotula squalida
Matricaria discoidea
NZ Buttonweed
Pineappleweed
See also:

Woody Asteraceae

Olearia
Olearia
Euryops
Brachyglottis

Achillea . . . . . Yarrow or Millefoil


Achillea millefolium . . . . Yarrow

Common

Achillea ptarmica . . . . Sneezewort

Damp grassy places and fields

Double versions occur, esp. as garden escapes


Ambrosia . . . . . Ragweed


Ambrosia artemisiifolia . . . . Common Ragweed

Birdseed alien, esp. in C Br (Photos 1 & 2 GP Buckley)

See also
Artemisia

Anaphalis . . . . . Pearly Everlasting


Anaphalis margaritacea . . . . Pearly Everlasting

Estabished as garden escape (from W USA) at scattered sites in Br, esp. in S Wa and N Sc

Antennaria . . . . . Mountain Everlasting


Antennaria dioica . . . . Mountain Everlasting

Heaths and mountain slopes esp. in N

Anthemis . . . . . Chamomile

Leaflets +/- flattened


Anthemis arvensis . . . . Corn Chamomile

Locally frequent, mostly in S & C Br; fls 20-40 mm

See also - A. cotula Stinking Chamomile - which is similar but with smaller fl (c.12-25mm), hairless with unpleasant smell).
Also:

Arctium . . . . . Burdock

Arctium minus . . . . Lesser Burdock

Widely distributed in woods, waysides and shady places (3 subspp. recognised but all intermediates occur).

Arctium lappa . . . . Greater Burdock

Has solid petioles, flower heads >35 mm across and flower stalks 3-10 cm.; widespread in C & S En (Photos 2, 3, 4 - C. Hutchinson)

Artemisia . . . . . Mugwort


Choose between:
Mugwort
Sea Wormwood
Wormwood
Field Wormwood

Tarragon
Annual Mugwort
Chinese Mugwort
see also: Ragweed

A number of other less common spp. may be found in the BI

Artemisia absinthum . . . . Wormwood

Silky-hairy both sides of leaf; Common in C En & N Wa, more scattered elsewhere but rare in Ire

Artemisia annua . . . . Sweet Wormwood, Annual Mugwort

Uncommon sweetly-smelling casual on waste ground, sometimes grown as a herb

Artemisia campestris . . . . Field Wormwood

A rare plant of E Anglia; a related plant is v. local on sand dunes in W Br (photos R. Horton)

Artemisia dracunculus . . . . Tarragon

Scattered as garden escape; smells of tarragon; linear leaves distinguish from other Artemisia spp.

Artemisia maritima . . . . Sea Wormwood

Localised around coasts but not W or N Sc and N Ire (was Seraphidium)

Artemisia verlotiorum . . . . . Chinese Mugwort

Similar to Mugwort (below) but with lvs (linear or with long linear tips) all the way up flower spike; uncommon garden escape

Artemisia vulgaris . . . . . Mugwort

Silky hairy lower side of lvs; common on rough ground and waste places in lowland BI

Aster . . . . . Michaelmas Daisies

See Galatella (Goldilocks aster); Tripolium (Sea aster) and Symphyotrichum (Michaelmas daisy)

Galatella (was Aster). . . . . Goldilocks Aster


Galatella linosyris (was Aster linosyris). . . . Goldilocks Aster

Very local on limestone sea cliffs in W Br

Symphyotrichum (was Aster). . . . . Michaelmas Daisies

Several Michaelmas daisy spp. have established around the BI as garden escapes. These (and others) are hard to distinguish and include:

Symphyotrichum x salignum . . . . Michaelmas Daisy

Narrow phyllaries tight onto flower head

S. novi-belgii . . . . Confused Michaelmas-daisy

Phyllaries spreading around flower head

Also:

S. lanceloatus . . . . Narrow-leaved Michaelmas-daisy

Lvs usually <1cm wide

Other similar spp. include :

Fleabanes


Tripolium (was Aster). . . . . Sea Aster


Tripolium pannonicum (was Aster tripolium) . . . . Sea Aster

Salt-marshes around BI

Sometimes occurs with only yellow tubular florets:

Bellis . . . . . Daisy


Bellis perennis . . . . . Daisy

V common and widespread, esp. on lawns

Bidens . . . . . Bur-marigold


Bidens cernua . . . . . Nodding Bur-marigold

Frequent, but rather scattered, in damp places across BI, less so in Sc

Bidens tripartita . . . . . Trifid Bur-marigold

Frequent, but rather scattered, in damp places across BI, less so in Sc; trifoliate leaves


A number of other species have become widely introduced including B. frondosa, "Beggarticks" with forward-directed barbs (rather than backward) on fruits and the following:

Bidens pilosa . . . . . Pitchforks or Black-jack

An alien scattered in En

Brachyglottis . . . . . Brachyglottis

Brachyglottis x jubar . . . . . Brachyglottis Senecio 'Sunshine' (was Senecio greyi)

Common in municipal plantings and persists as a throw-out


Calendula . . . . . Marigold

Calendula officinalis . . . . . Pot Marigold

Sometimes naturalised, esp. in S

Calendula arvensis . . . . . Field Marigold

Rather rare in Guernsey and the S; note that C. officinalis is larger than C. arvensis (lvs 7-15 cm vs. 3-8 cm; flower heads 20-70mm vs. 10-20 mm), while both are rather downy in comparison with the rather smooth Glebionis segetum.


Similar spp. :


Carduus . . . . . Thistles

See also Cirsium, Onopordum for other thistles

Carduus acanthoides . . . . Welted Thistle

(= Carduus crispus)

Carduus nutans . . . . Musk Thistle

Locally frequent on rough ground on calcareous soils, esp. in the S

Carduus tenuiflorus . . . . Slender Thistle

Leaves often quite large with white veins and can be mistaken for Silybum (Milk thistle) leaves; locally common esp. near coast in the CI & S Br

Carlina . . . . . Carline Thistle

Carlina vulgaris . . . . Carline Thistle

Open grassland esp. on calcareous soils exc. N Isles

Centaurea . . . . .Knapweeds

Centaurea aspera . . . . Rough Star-thistle

Naturalised in CI

Centaurea cyanus . . . . Cornflower

Formerly common arable weed but now widely planted in wildflower mixes

Centaurea montana . . . . Perennial Cornflower

Common in gardens and widely naturalised

Centaurea nigra . . . . Hardheads or Knapweed

Common

Similar spp. include C. debauxii (Chalk Knapweed; fl head <14 mm across; mostly on chalk in S Br) and C. jacea (Brown Knapweed; on well-drained soils in S En). The latter is distinguished from the others by the irregular brown teeth on the flower head bracts (Left pic.) vs deep regular teeth for C. nigra (right pic.)
C. jacea
C. nigra

Centaurea scabiosa . . . . Greater Knapweed

More common in S but extends to C Sc

Centaurea solstitialis . . . . Yellow Star-thistle

Casual in C & S Br

Chamaemelum . . . . . Chamomile

Chamaemelum nobile . . . . Chamomile

Locally frequent esp. in CI, S Br and SW Ire; fls 18-25mm, plant hairy with scented leaves, bracts with white edges

Chrysanthemum . . . . Chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemum . . . . Chrysanthemums

Now see Glebionis , or Leucanthemum

Cicerbita . . . . . Sowthistle

Cicerbita alpina . . . . Alpine Blue-sowthistle

Rare plant of mountains in C Sc, with records in N Ire and N En

Cicerbita macrophylla . . . . Common Blue-sowthistle

Naturalised on rough and waste ground

Similar spp. :

Chichory

Cichorium . . . . . Chicory

Cichorium intybus . . . . Chicory

Locally common on calcareous soils - mostly of garden origin

Similar spp. :

Blue sow thistles


Cota . . . . . Chamomiles


Cota tinctoria . . . . Yellow Chamomile

Naturalised in S & C Br


Also Cota austriaca - very similar to Corn Chamomile (Anthemis arvensis)