Asteraceae . . . . . . Daisy family (part 2) (to part 1, to Part 3)


Cirsium . . . . . Thistles

See also Carduus , Onopordum, Carlina

Cirsium acaule . . . . .Dwarf Thistle

On chalk grassland in SE En (1st pic from Wikipedia)

Cirsium arvense . . . . . Creeping Thistle

Common on arable, waste and rough ground

Cirsium dissectum . . . . . Meadow Thistle

Wet fields, throughout Ire but rather local in En and Wa, rare in Sc

Cirsium heterophyllum . . . . . Melancholy Thistle

Locally common in damp grassland in hilly country in N BI

Cirsium palustre . . . . . Marsh Thistle

Common in damp grassland

Cirsium vulgare . . . . .Spear Thistle


Conyza . . . . . Fleabanes

See Erigeron

Cosmos . . . . Mexican Aster

Cosmos bipinnatus . . . . . Mexican Aster, Cosmos

Persistent casual on tips and waste places

Cotula . . . . . Buttonweeds

There are several introduced spp. from Australia or NZ including:

Cotula alpina . . . . Alpine Cotula

Spreading by roadsides, esp. in Yorkshire (pics Hazel Mitford)

Cotula sessilis . . . . Bindii, Burrweed or Jo-Jo-weed

Rare as (unfortunate) introduction in lawns (CI and S En) - notable for hard prickly fruit

Cotula squalida . . . . Leptinella

In lawns esp. in Sc

Crepis . . . . . Hawk's-beards

Crepis generally have two clear rows of bracts on flower head; There are a number of other similar Crepis spp.

Crepis biennis . . . . Rough Hawk's-beard

Scattered by roadsides mostly in En, Wa, Ire but locally common in S; a robust plant to 1.2 m with v. divided hairy raggedy sharply lobed lvs

Crepis capillaris . . . . Smooth Hawk's-beard

Common in grassy places; v pale yellow fl heads

Crepis paludosa . . . . Marsh Hawk's-beard

Stem leaves clasping the stem; Marshy places in N half of BI

Crepis vesicaria . . . . Beaked Hawk's-beard

Fruit with a long beak between seed and the 'parachute' of hairs; outer row of bracts on flower not sticking out; Common in C & S En, scattered elsewhere

Cynara . . . . . Globe Artichoke

Cynara scolymus . . . . Globe Artichoke

This, and the similar, though spiny lvd C. cardunculus (Cardoon), are infrequent casuals escaped from cultivation

Delairea . . . . . German Ivy

Delairea odorata . . . . German Ivy

Widely established CI and Scillies, more rare on mainland

Doronicum . . . . . Leopard's-bane

Doronicum pardalianches . . . . Leopard's-bane

Frequent

Echinops . . . . . Globe Thistle

Garden escapes, scattered across BI, also E. exaltatus

Echinops bannaticus . . . . Blue Globe-thistle

Flowers blue

Echinops sphaerocephalus . . . . Globe Thistle

Flowers greyish/white; petioles with winged base clasping stem

Erigeron . . . . . Fleabane


Select from:
E. acris
E. borealis
E. glaucus
E. speciosus


E. karvinskianus


Also previous Conyzas:

Mostly hairless 'fl' heads
Hairy 'fl' heads
E. canadensis
E. floribunda
E. sumatrensis
E. bonariensis

Erigeron acris . . . . Blue Fleabane

Locally frequent on sandy soils and dunes, esp. in En Wa and CI

Erigeron borealis . . . . Alpine Fleabane

A rare plant (usually <20 cm) of cliffs in Perthshire

Previous Conyzas


Erigeron bonariensis (was Conyza) . . . . Argentine fleabane

Hairy bracts on flower head clearly red tipped; flower heads 7-11 mm wide with white tips; flower spike with long lateral branches; scattered in S Br, more common in CI

Erigeron canadensis (was Conyza) . . . . Canadian fleabane

Small, +/- parallel-sided fl heads (capitulas) 3-5 mm wide with white petals; disc florets with 4 petals (pull apart or squeeze the flower head); plant sparsely hairy (note long forward hairs at edge of lf), to 1 m tall with cylindrical fl spike; common in C & S Br but scattered across BI (N.B. often over-recorded for other spp.)

Erigeron floribunda (was Conyza) . . . . Bilbao fleabane

Similar to E. canadensis (flower heads 3-5 mm wide), but taller, few hairs on fl head, 5 petals on disc florets and tendency to purple tips to fl heads (petals); common in S Br and Ire and CI (N to Manchester)

Erigeron sumatrensis (was Conyza) . . . . Guernsey fleabane

Fl heads slightly larger (5-8 mm wide) than E. floribunda & E. canadensis, with brownish petals, disc florets have 5 petals, but bracts hairy, not or slightly red-tipped, with pyramidal flower spike; often the commonest 'Conyza' in S & E Br and CI

Similar spp. :

Cudweeds Mugwort

Erigeron glaucus . . . . Beach Aster

Seaside cliffs in S En and CI

Erigeron speciosus . . . . Showy Fleabane

Much taller & less succulent than E. glaucus; occasional garden relic or throwout, esp. S En

Erigeron karvinskianus . . . . Mexican or Guernsey Daisy

On walls, esp. in S En and CI

Similar spp. :

Asters Asters Bellis perennis

Eupatorium . . . . . Hemp Agrimony

Eupatorium cannabinum . . . . Hemp Agrimony

Damp places

Euryops . . . . . South-African Daisy-bush

E. chrysanthemoides, and E. pectinatus . . . . South-African Daisy-bushes

Widely grown in CI, sometimes escape; E. chrysanthemoides winter flowering but E. pectinatus fl in early spring
E. chrysanthemoides
E. chrysanthemoides
E. pectinatus
E. pectinatus

Filago, Gnaphalium, Laphangium, Logfia, Omalotheca, Pseudognaphalium . . . . . Cudweeds

There has been much reorganisation of these Genera in recent years
Small Cudweed
Cape Cudweed
Jersey Cudweed
Common Cudweed
Logfia minima
Pseudognaphalium undulatum
Laphangium luteoalbum
Filago germanica

Marsh Cudweed
Heath Cudweed
Dwarf Cudweed
Mountain Everlasting
Gnaphalium uliginosum
Omalotheca sylvatica
Omalotheca supinum
Antennaria dioica

NB O. supina at tops of mountains; G. uliginosum in wet areas at lower altitudes

Filago . . . . . Cudweeds

Filago germanica . . . . Common Cudweed

Scattered in bare places on sany heaths across BI; clusters of flower heads almost globose

Also two other rare spp. F. lutescens (Red-tipped Cudweed), and F. pyramidata (Broad-lvd Cudweed)

Gnaphalium . . . . . Cudweeds

Gnaphalium uliginosum . . . . . Marsh Cudweed

Common in damp places


Laphangium . . . . . Jersey cudweed

Laphangium luteoalbum . . . . . Jersey Cudweed

Leaves woolly-white both sides, not decurrent down stem; very rare in a few sandy fields and dunes in the S; not seen recently in Jersey; but is a common introduced weed in some other parts of the world


Logfia (was Filago). . . . . Cudweeds

Logfia minima . . . . Small Cudweed

Bare places on sany soils


Omalotheca (was Gnaphalium) . . . . . Dwarf Cudweed

Omalotheca supina (was Gnaphalium) . . . . . Dwarf Cudweed

Local on mountain rocks in Sc; <10 fl heads/stem


Omalotheca sylvatica (was Gnaphalium) . . . . . Heath Cudweed

Locally frequent in BI; >10 fl heads/stem; lvs 3-veined

Pseudognaphalium (was Gnaphalium). . . . . Cape Cudweed

Pseudognaphalium undulatum . . . . . Cape Cudweed

The dominant sp. in the Channel isles, but rare alsewhere

Galinsoga . . . . . Gallant Soldier

G. parviflora is nearly hairless while G. quadriradiata is very hairy. Also the latter has undivided scales between florets in the "flower" receptacle (use lens!)
Galinsoga parviflora
Galinsoga quadriradiata
Comparison of scales
Gallant Soldier
Shaggy Soldier

Galinsoga quadriradiata . . . . Shaggy Soldier

Much hairier than the sp. below; hairs on fruit stalks >0.4 mm; CI N to C Sc

Galinsoga parviflora . . . . Gallant Soldier

Locally frequent in CI and S Br

Gazania . . . . . Gazania

Gazania rigens . . . . Gazania

Naturalized on walls and rocks near sea in CI, Scillies

Glebionis . . . . .Corn Marigold

Glebionis segetum . . . . Corn Marigold

(Was Chrysanthemum)

Compare with the downy-leaved Calendula

Helianthus . . . . . Sunflower

Helianthus annuus . . . . Sunflower

Casual

Helianthus tuberosus . . . . Jerusalem Artichoke

Naturalised as scattered but persistent thow-out from cultivation

Helminthotheca . . . . . Bristly Oxtongue (ex. Picris echioides)

Helminthotheca echioides . . . . Bristly Oxtongue (ex. Picris echioides)

Note that the outer (involucral) bracts of the flower head distinguish Picris and Helminthotheca - (broad in Helminthotheca echiodes and all narrow in Picris)

Common in En and Wa, uncommon in Sc and Ire (exc. SE)

Hieracium . . . . . Hawkweeds

A group that is apomictic (producing seeds without fertilization) so divided into many microspecies that are difficult to distinguish - best treated as larger groups or as Hieracium (agg.)
N.B. Distinguish from Crepis (Hawk's beards) which have two clear rows of bracts on flower head

Some typical examples shown below:

Hieracium maculatum (part of H. sect. Vulgata) . . . . Spotted Hawkweed


Hieracium umbellatum . . . . . Umbellate Hawkweed (in H. sect. Hieraciodes)


Hieracium sect. Hieracioides. . . . . . Hawkweed (agg.) sect. Hieracioides


Hieracium sect. Foliosa. . . . . . Hawkweed (agg.) sect. Foliosa


Hieracium sect. Subalpina. . . . . . Hawkweed (agg.) sect. Subalpina

On mountains (this from Ben lawers)

Homogyne . . . . . Purple Colt's-foot

At only one site in Corrie Fee (thought to have been introduced in 19th C.)

Homogyne alpina . . . . Purple Colt's-foot


Hypochaeris . . . . . Cat's-ears

Stems leafless but with small scale-like bracts (= Cat's-ears; see also Leontodon and Scorzoneroides).

Hypochaeris glabra . . . . Smooth Cat's-ear

Local CI and E.Anglia and coasts, sandy soils, esp. in S
N.B. Ignore the hairy leaves in picture 2 (from a different plant!)

Hypochaeris maculata . . . . . Spotted Cat's-ear

Very local on sandy soils or maritime cliffs from Jersey to Westmoreland

Hypochaeris radicata . . . . . Common Cat's-ear

Common and rather variable; note the little 'cat's ears' up the stem

Inula . . . . . Fleabanes

Previously included Limbarda crithmoides (Golden Samphire)

Inula conyzae . . . . Ploughman's Spikenard

Locally common in scrub or grassland on calcareous soils in En, Wa and CI

Inula helenium . . . . . Elecampane

Naturalised in places; By the sea on cliffs and saltmarshes in S

Similar spp. :

Doronicum pardalianches Limbarda crithmoides

Lactuca . . . . . Lettuce

Lactuca serriola . . . . Prickly Lettuce

Frequent in SE; fruits < 4mm, olive-grey

Lactuca virosa . . . . Great Lettuce

Frequent in C and S En, but scattered as far as Dundee and Cornwall; Up to 2.5 m; Fruits > 4 mm, flattened, blackish; Lvs often maroon tinged

Other lettuces include L. sativa (Garden Lettuce) which is a smaller (to 1 m) smooth plant and is a casual mostly on waste land, with many cultivars

Lapsana . . . . . Nipplewort

Lapsana communis . . . . Nipplewort

Common

Similar sp.:

Mycelis muralis

Leontodon . . . . . Hawkbits

Note the y-shaped forked hairs on underside of leaves (use lens - see fig 4 of L. saxatilis); several rows of bracts on flower heads

Leontodon hispidus . . . . Rough Hawkbit

Like L. saxatilis, but with hairs all the way up the stem, stems often > 40 cm; outer ligules (ray florets) often reddish on underside; Grassland N to C Sc, but not in CI, or Man

Leontodon saxatilis . . . . Lesser Hawkbit

Outer ligules (ray florets) usually greyish-violet on underside; Note the forked hairs on leaves (use lens)

See also Scorzoneroides autumnalis (was L. autumnalis)

Limbarda (was Inula). . . . . Golden Samphire

Limbarda crithmoides . . . . Golden Samphire

Local on rocky coasts of BI in S, N to S Sc and Linconshire