Rosaceae . . . . Rose family


Choose closest flower colour:


White flowers - Choose: (a) Herbaceous . . . or . . . (b) Woody


White-flowered Herbaceous plants:



White Woody:


Rosaceae - pink or red flowers:


Rosaceae - yellow flowers

Agrimonies
Cinquefoils
Parsley pierts
Sibbaldia
Avens

Rosaceae - green or non-descript flowers

Aphanes australis
Alchemilla alpina
Alchemilla glabra
Alchemilla glaucescens

Cotoneaster cambrica
Acaena novae-zelandia
Acaena anserinifolia
Poterium sanguisorba

See also:
Swinecress     Poterium


Acaena . . . . . . Pirri-pirri bur


Acaena anserinifolia . . . . . . Bronze Pirri-pirri bur

Garden escape naturalised in a few places on bare ground

Acaena novae-zelandia . . . . . . Pirri-pirri bur

Garden escape naturalised in a few places on bare ground

Agrimony


Agrimonies can be separated on the basis of the fruits as below:
    - A. procera (L) has reflexed hooks with only shallow furrows
    - A. eupatoria (R) has non-reflexed (patent) hooks and deep, full furrows in the fruit
A. procera
A. eupatoria

Agrimonia eupatoria . . . . Agrimony


Agrimonia procera . . . . Fragrant agrimony

Sometimes fragrant when crushed

See also :

Golden rod

Alchemilla . . . . . . Lady's mantles


These are apomictic and have been separated into many microspecies; A. vulgaris agg. covers all the non-alpine (non-silky) spp.. N.B. The apparent 'petals' are actually sepals, with the 'sepals' formed from an epicalyx


The common garden spp. A. mollis can be separated from other spp. by the two rows of 'petals/sepals' being equal length (right side in picture below)

Alchemilla alpina . . . . . . Alpine Lady's mantle

Generally found at higher altitudes in mountains; a rather similar sp A. conjuncta (Silver lady's mantle) is grown in gardens

Alchemilla vulgaris agg. . . . . . . Lady's mantles


Some examples include:

Alchemilla glabra . . . . . . Smooth lady's mantle

Hairless leaves; common in N and W and mountain areas, rarer in S & E En and S Ire

Alchemilla mollis . . . . . Garden lady's mantle

A robust plant with hairy leaves; note 'petals'/'sepals' equal length; widespread garden escape throughout BI

Some other spp. include:
A. glaucescens
Glaucous Lady's mantle

Amelanchier . . . . June berry


Amelanchier lamarckii . . . . June berry

Increasingly cultivated and becoming naturalised in places

Aphanes . . . . . . Parsley Piert


Aphanes australis . . . . . . Slender Parsley Piert

Widespread on more acid soils, leaf tapers to petiole

Aphanes arvensis . . . . . . Parsley Piert

Widely distributed esp. on base-rich soils; similar to the above, but with sepals reaching +/- to the end of the stipules (shorter in A. australis), lf base truncate

Aronia . . . . Chokeberry


Aronia melanocarpa . . . . Black chokeberry

Increasingly cultivated and becoming naturalised in places

Comarum . . . . . Marsh cinquefoil


Comarum palustris . . . . Marsh cinquefoil (was Potentilla)

Marshes and bogs, esp. in N

Chaenomeles . . . . . Japanese quince, Japonica


Chaenomeles x superba . . . . Japonica or Japanese quince

The common garden plant is often the hybrid between C. speciosa (Chinese quince) and C. japonica (Japonica), though both parents occur; all are difficult to distinguish. Naturalised in places

Cotoneaster . . . . . Cotoneasters


There are many "spp.", mostly apomictic, mostly escapes from cultivation (Stace gives 93 spp. and hybrids ; the commonest are the small-leaved (deciduous) Wall cotoneaster (C. horizontalis) which has small leaves on horizontally spreading stems, and Waterer's cotoneaster (C. x watereri). Some others are illustrated below, but tend to be difficult to separate
The only native sp. is the rare (only found in the wild on Gt Orme's Head) Wild cotoneaster (C. cambricus)


Cotoneaster sp
Cotoneaster x watereri
Cotoneaster frigidus
Cotoneaster bullatus
Cotoneaster sp.
Waterer's c.
Tree cotoneaster

Cotoneaster cambricus
Cotoneaster cambricus
Cotoneaster simonsii
Cotoneaster sp. (evergreen)
Great Orme cotoneaster
Great Orme cotoneaster
Cotoneaster simonsii
Cotoneaster sp. (evergreen)

Cotoneaster horizontalis (deciduous)
Cotoneaster horizontalis (deciduous)
Cotoneaster vilmorinianus

Crataegus . . . . . Hawthorn


>11 spp. recognised by Stace; here treated as one sp., though note that most plants with red/pink fls would be C. laevigata (Midland hawthorn - see below), the main other native sp.

Crataegus monogyna . . . . Hawthorn or May

Common in hedgerows

Crataegus laevigata . . . . Midland Hawthorn or May

In hedgerows esp. from C to SE En; shown on R cf. C. monogyna on L

Dasiphora . . . . . Shrubby cinquefoil

Dasiphora fruticosa (=Potentilla fruticosa). . . . . . Shrubby cinquefoil

Rare in the wild except in W Ire and Teesdale (though an Asiatic variety is widely grown and commonly escapes)

Dryas . . . . . Mountain avens


Dryas octopetala . . . . Mountain avens

An arctic sp. reaching S limit in UK; very local (mostly in Sc) on base-rich mountain ledges, but down to sea level in the very far N

Filipendula . . . . . .Meadowsweet and Dropwort


Filipendula vulgaris . . . . Dropwort

Calcareous grassland mostly in the S and C Br and W Ire; 8-20 leaflet pairs

Filipendula ulmaria . . . . Meadowsweet

Damp places throughout BI; honey-scented

Fragaria . . . . . . Wild strawberry


Fragaria vesca . . . . . . Wild strawberry

Common in woods and scrub

The garden strawberry (F. ananassa) is larger in all parts than the wild strawberry and has many stolons

See also: Potentilla sterilis

Note that terminal tooth of leaflets longer than neighbours in F. vesca, but not in P. sterilis, also note gap between petals in P. sterilis

Geum . . . . . Avens

Geum urbanum
Geum macrophyllum
Geum rivale
Geum rivale x urbanum = intermedium
Wood avens
Hybrid avens
Water avens
Water avens variant

Geum rivale - mutant

Geum rivale . . . . . . Water avens

Throughout BI exc. SE, common in N

Odd mutant of G. rivale

Geum urbanum . . . . . . Wood avens

Common in woodland exc. N tip of Sc


Note that G. urbanum leaves (on R below) are similar to Goldilocks buttercup (on L below)

Geum macrophyllum . . . . Large leaved Avens

Scattered in woodland; distinguished by large, apparently roundish (actually pinnate) lvs; 3rd pic compares with smaller G. urbanum

Geum rivale x urbanum = intermedium . . . . . . Wood x water avens

A reasonably common hybrid, esp. in WA, N En and Sc

Malus . . . . . .Apple


Malus domestica . . . . . . Apple


Mespilus . . . . . Medlar


Mespilus germanica . . . . . . Medlar

Local in CI and S

Photinia . . . . . Stranvaesia


Photinia davidiana . . . . . . Stranvaesia

Local in CI and S

Physocarpus . . . . Ninebark


Physocarpus opulifolia . . . . Ninebark

A scattered relic of cultivation

Potentilla . . . . . . Cinquefoils


Select from:



See also:
Several other spp. occur as casuals including: P.recta (Sulphur cinquefoil), P. inclinata (Grey cinquefoil), P. intermedia (Russian cinquefoil), P. montana (W cinquefoil), as well as rare spp.

Potentilla anglica . . . . . . Trailing tormentil

Scattered throughout BI; leaf stalks <2cm, eventually rooting at nodes

Potentilla anserina . . . . . . Silverweed

Pastures and waysides, but particularly common by the sea; pinnate lvs with silver underside

Potentilla argentea . . . . . . Hoary cinquefoil

Local and decreasing in CI to C Sc

Potentilla crantzii . . . . . . Alpine cinquefoil

Very local on basic rocks/grassland on mountains, mostly in Sc highlands

Potentilla erecta . . . . . . Tormentil

Common and widespread on heaths and mountains esp. on acid soils; unstalked lvs

Other plants with mostly 4-petalled fls include P. anglica (>20 carpels, and lower lvs with stalks >1cm) P. x Mixta (with sterile fls).

Potentilla indica . . . . . . Yellow-flowered strawberry

Scattered in CI, C & S Br and elsewhere

Potentilla reptans . . . . . . Creeping cinquefoil

Common in Br N to C Sc, local further N; long-stalked lvs, clearly rooting at nodes

Potentilla rupestris . . . . . . Rock cinquefoil

V rare in the wild with recent records mostly confined to Radnorshire and E Sutherland

Potentilla sterilis . . . . . . Barren strawberry

Note the wide gap between petals in this sp.; also top tooth of terminal leaflet is shorter than neighbours

     Compare: Fragaria vesca which has closer petals and long terminal leaflet


Potentilla verna . . . . . . Spring cinquefoil

Local on dry basic grassland (was P. neumanniana or P. tabernaemontani)

Poterium . . . . . Salad burnet


Poterium sanguisorba . . . . . Salad burnet

Esp. on chalk and limestone

See also Sanguisorba . . . . . Greater burnet

Prunus . . . . . Cherries and plums


Choose from:     Flowers,     Fruit,    or     Leaves

Flowers:
Prunus spinosa
Prunus cerasifera
Prunus avium
Prunus domestica
Blackthorn
Myrobalan
Wild cherry
Plum

Prunus padus
Prunus lusitanica
Prunus laurocerasus
Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae)
Bird cherry
Portuguese laurel
Laurel
Bay

Some fruits:

Leaves:

Prunus avium . . . . . . Wild cherry

Has been widely planted but also seeds naturally; note constriction below petals and fine teeth on retained bud scales

Prunus cerasifera . . . . . . Myrobalan cherry-plum

Early flowering (early Mar.) very variable including yellow-fruited (Mirabelle) and red-fruited cvs.; new shoots green; sepals blunt, reflexed, with fine projections (pic1); petals c.10 mm

Prunus domestica subsp insititia . . . . . . Damson or wild plum

Widespread in hedgerows

Prunus laurocerasus . . . . . . Cherry laurel


Prunus lusitanica . . . . . . Portugal (or Portuguese) laurel


N.B. Compare also:


Prunus padus . . . . . . Bird cherry

Most common in the N; petals >6mm, fruit <8mm

Similar is Rum cherry (Prunus serotina) with petals <5mm, fruit >8mm and spreading esp. in C & S En

Prunus spinosa . . . . . . Blackthorn or Sloe

Common in hedges or scrub; flowers c.April (Blackthorn winter); sepals not reflexed, triangular; petals c.6 mm; new shoots brownish, hairy

Pyracantha . . . . . . Firethorn


V. spiny garden escapes, with P. coccinea being the more common, distinguished by hairy fl stalks & petioles
P. regersiana
P. coccinea
P. coccinea
P. coccinea

Pyrus . . . . . . Pear


Pyrus communis . . . . . . Pear

Garden origin; NB is non-spiny tree with inedible fruits >5cm (c.f. P. pyraster, the wild pear, which occurs mainly in CI and S to C Br)

Pyrus calleryana . . . . . . Callery pear

'Chanticleer' is widely planted

Rosa . . . . . . . . Roses

There are a large number of rose species or hybrids that may be found in the wild; some are shown below:


Rosa canina agg.
Rosa spinosissima
Rosa rugosa
Rosa luciae
Dog rose
Burnet rose
Japanese rose
Memorial rose

Rosa micrantha

Small sweet-briar

Rubus . . . . . Berries

Again these are apomictic generating large numbers of variants. A few of the main spp. are shown below - choose the nearest:


Rubus fruticosus
Rubus caesius
Rubus idaeus
Rubus spectabilis
Blackberry
Dewberry
Raspberry
Salmonberry
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus arcticus
Rubus saxatilis
Rubus loganobaccus
Cloudberry
Arctic bramble
Stone bramble
Loganberry
Rubus tricolor
Rubus cockburnianus
Rubus phoenicolasius
Creeping chinese bramble
White-stemmed bramble
Japanese wineberry

Rubus arcticus . . . . . . Arctic bramble

Extinct in the wild in Br

Rubus caesius . . . . . . Dew berry

Throughout BI, has few drupes to each berry; fruits earlier than most blackberries

Rubus chamaemorus . . . . . . Cloud berry

Peaty moors and bogs on mountains

Rubus cockburnianus . . . . . . White-stemmed bramble

Garden escape across En and Sc

Rubus fruticosus agg. . . . . . . Blackberry or bramble

Many variants have been recognised; widespread in hedgerows and scrub

Rubus idaeus . . . . . . Raspberry

Widespread

Rubus loganobaccus . . . . . Loganberry

A crop plant sometimes escaping

Rubus phoenicolasius . . . . . . Japanese wineberry

Planted and infrequently naturalised


Rubus saxatilis . . . . . . Stone bramble

Rather scattered esp. on basic mountain slopes

Rubus spectabilis . . . . . . Salmonberry

Naturalised esp. in the NW and islands where it can be a serious invasive sp.

Rubus tricolor . . . . . . Creeping chinese bramble

Grown as ground cover but spreading

Burnets (Sanguisorba and Poterium)

Choose from the below:
Poterium sanguisorba
Poterium sanguisorba
Sanguisorba officinalis
Sanguisorba officinalis
Salad burnet
Salad burnet
Greater burnet
Greater burnet

Sanguisorba . . . . . Burnet


Sanguisorba officinalis . . . . . Greater burnet

Locally frequent - esp. in C Br

See also Poterium . . . . . Salad burnet

Sibbaldia


Sibbaldia procumbens . . . . Sibbaldia

Local on grassy/rocky mountains above c500m in Sc

Sorbus - Rowan and whitebeams

Many species and apomictic variants have been recognised, only some of the best-known ones are shown here:

Sorbus aria agg. . . . . Common Whitebeam

An apomictic sp. for which many variants have been idd, native in the S but widely planted (see below for other examples)

Sorbus aucuparia . . . . Rowan

Throughout Br and Ire, extends to high altitudes on mountains


Sorbus torminalis . . . . Wild service tree, Checker tree

Local in woods on clay or limestone in S & C Br, N to Westmoreland

A number of other Sorbus "spp." are shown below (most very rare in the wild):

S. pseudofennica
S. rupicola
S. arranensis
S. lancastrensis
Arran service tree
Rock whitebeam
Arran whitebeam
Lancastrian whitebeam

S. intermedia
S. devoniensis
Swedish whitebeam
Devon whitebeam

Spiraea . . . . . Brideworts

Many varieties/spp. have been naturalised as garden escapes; some of the more common are illustrated

Spiraea alba . . . . Bridewort


Spiraea japonica . . . . Japanese Spiraea


Spiraea x arguta . . . . Bridal spray

Much planted and occurs scattered in Br


Spiraea x pseudosalicifolia . . . . Confused bridewort

The most common variety