Scrophulariaceae . . . . . Figwort family


One of the families of the previous Scrophulariaceae: now separated into:
Scophulariaceae, Orobanchaceae, Veronicaceae and Phrymacaceae, etc.

Choose between:

Butterfly bush
Orange-ball tree
Figworts
White mullein
Yellow Figwort
Mulleins
Purple mullein
Mudwort
Bacopa
Cape figwort


Scrophulariaceae . . . . . Figwort family


Buddleja . . . . . Buddleja


Scrophulariaceae/Buddleja davidii . . . . Butterfly bush

Widely found self-seeded on old walls and rooves

Scrophulariaceae/Buddleja globosa . . . . Orange ball tree

Uncommonly self-seeded

Chaenostoma (was Sutera). . . . . Bacopa


Scrophulariaceae/Chaenostoma cordatum . . . . Bacopa

Planted on hanging baskets and rarely escapes, esp. in S Br

Scrophulariaceae/Chaenostoma hispidum . . . . Bacopa

Less common than the above

Limosella . . . . . Mudworts


Scrophulariaceae/Limosella aquatica . . . . Mudwort

Very small plant scattered on wet mud at edge of ponds, often drying out in summer

Phygelius . . . . . Cape Figwort


Scrophulariaceae/Phygelius capensis . . . . Cape Figwort

Widely planted and rarely naturalised, esp. as garden relic

Scrophulariaceae/Scrophularia . . . Figworts


Select from the following:

S.scorodonia
S. nodosa
S. auriculata
S. vernalis
S.umbrosa

Scrophularia auriculata . . . . . Water Figwort

Stem angles winged; Throughout En, Wa, Ire but rare in Sc (was S. aquatica)

Scrophularia nodosa . . . . Common Figwort

Damp places in Br and Ire but rare in CI

Scrophularia scorodonia . . . . Balm-leaved Figwort

Hairy; Locally frequent in CI and SW

Scrophularia umbrosa . . . . Green Figwort

Strongly winged stem; Locally scattered in shady places in Br & Ire

Scrophularia vernalis . . . . Yellow Figwort

Locally naturalised

Scrophulariaceae/Verbascum . . . . . Mulleins


Purple hairs on filaments
White/yellow hairs on filaments
White hairs on filaments

Note that various other spp. and hybrids can be found. Full identification requires info on hair type, anther and stigma shapes, etc.

At least some violet/purple hairs on filaments
V. blattaria
Other spp
Single stalked fls at ea. node
V. pyramidatum, V. chaixii
Cordate basal lvs
Stalked glands throughout
Stalked glands at top

Variants of Great Mullein: hairs branched, note differences in anthers & stigmas: 1st 3 spp. have only 3 symmetrical anthers
Head-like stigma
Spoon-shaped stigma
Lvs hairless to mealy
All anthers kidney-shaped

Lvs hairless to mealy

Verbscum bombyciferrum . . . . Broussa mullein

Introduced on waste ground in S half of Br - has spoon-shaped stigma, & 2 lower anthers with hairs only at base; stem ridged below lvs (distinguishing from V. phlomoides (Orange mullein))

Verbscum densiflorum . . . . Dense-flowered mullein

Introduced on waste ground in S half of Br - distinguished by spoon-shaped stigma (see lower in pic. 1)

Verbscum lychnitis . . . . White mullein

Local as native in S Br but occurs more widely as garden escape (sometimes yellow); note all anthers the same with white hairs; pedicels >6mm; mealy to hairless lvs

Verbscum nigrum . . . . Black mullein

Violet hairs on filaments; basal lvs cordate; locally common in CI, C & S Br

Other spp. with violet hairs on filaments include V. pyramidatum and V. chaixii

Verbascum phoeniceum . . . . Purple mullein

An unusual casual on waste ground

Verbascum speciosum . . . . Hungarian mullein

The most showy sp.; anthers all kidney-shaped on hairy stamens; naturalised in C & S Br on waste and rough ground

Similar is Hoary mullein (V. pulverentum) with hairs wearing off - rare in E. Anglia

Verbscum thapsus . . . . Great mullein

2 anthers without hairs, head-shaped stigma; common on waste and rough ground, especially on chalk and in C & S Br

Verbscum virgatum . . . . Twiggy mullein

Locally frequent in SW En; violet hairs on filaments, stalked glands over most of plant (the similar V. blatteria (Moth mullein) has glands only at top and single stalked fls)

There are a number of other Verbascum spp. and hybrids