Note that only Scots Pine is native - Some typical spp. shown

Lvs Needle-like or long & narrow:

Needles single
Needles in clumps (2-5)
Needles deciduous in clumps >10
Needles evergreen in clumps >10
Spruces, Firs, etc.
Pines, Pinus
Larch, Larix
Cedars, Cedrus

Needles single:

Lvs tapered at tip and base, on short persistent pegs
Needles single, sessile, on "suckers"
Lvs on partly raised angled "cushions"
Lvs variable size
Spruces, Picea
Firs, Abies
Douglas fir, Tseudotsuga
Western Hemlock Tsuga

Leaves in 2s or 3s, not appressed
Needles single on young shts
Needles with short petiole
Needles with short petiole
Juniper, Juniperus
Yew, Taxus
Irish Yew, Taxus

Flat lvs in one plane
Flat lvs, deciduous
Flat lvs in one plane
Long scale-like lvs
Redwood, Metasequoia
Swamp cypress Taxodium

Pinaceae/Abies . . . . . Firs

Firs have singly inserted flattened lvs on sucker-like bases, generally upward curved; many spp. planted - just a few shown here with many additional species planted in parks, gardens and forestry; cones always erect (c.f. Picea)

Abies alba . . . . European Silver Fir

Infrequently planted large tree, resinous smell, buds not resinous, female cones with bracts showing, broadly spreading lvs but not as much as A. grandis

Abies fraserii . . . . Fraser Fir

No parting between lvs on upper side, female cones with bracts showing, sometimes used as xmas tree

Abies grandis . . . . Giant Fir

Can easily see twig when viewed from above, also two rows of lvs (the upper shorter), lvs notched with two bands of stomata only on lower surface, buds resinous, female cones without any bract showing, lvs smell of orange peel

Abies homolepis . . . . Nikko Fir

Abies koreana . . . . Korean Fir

Similar to A. nordmanniana but cones <12 cm

Abies nordmanniana . . . . Caucasian or Nordmann Fir

Now the commonest Xmas tree, branches largely in horizontal planes, cannot easily see twig from above; lvs straight; cones >12 cm with scales showing

See also the similar A. koreana

Abies procera . . . . Noble Fir

Branches largely in horizontal planes, cannot easily see twig from above; lvs curving up; stomata (white bands) on upper & lower lf surface

Pinaceae/Cedrus . . . . . Cedars

Lvs evergreen in clusters >10 on short side-shoots, but singly on young shoots; widely planted

Cedrus atlantica . . . . Atlantic Cedar

Leaves <3cm, tapering gradually to a 0.5 mm translucent tip (cf C. libani which has rapidly tapering lvs)

Cedrus deodara . . . . Deodar Cedar

Tip of tree hanging, lvs >3cm gradually tapered to translucent tip c.0.4 mm

Cedrus libani . . . . Cedar-of-Lebanon

Tip of tree stiffly erect or to one side, lvs <3cm rapidly narrowing to V, <0.2 mm hardly translucent tip

Pinaceae/Larix . . . . . Larch

Deciduous; most forestry Larches are a hybrid (L. x marschlinsii) between L. decidua (European Larch) and L. kaempferi (Japanese Larch) which has more squat cones (as below)

Larix decidua . . . . European Larch

Young twigs blond, cones c.1.5 times as long as wide, scales hardly sticking out

Larix kaemferi . . . . Japanese Larch

More reddish young twigs (pic 2), cones nearly spherical with scales recurved, and lvs with more prominent white stripes below

Pinaceae/Picea . . . . . Spruces

Needles single, on brown woody pegs (mostly less flat than Abies); cones hanging
P. abies
P. sitchensis
P. orientalis
P. omorika

P. breweriana
P. pungens

Picea abies . . . . Norway Spruce

Old-fashioned christmas tree; needles softer and less sharp than P. sitchensis; compare cones in pic3

Picea breweriana . . . . Brewer's Spruce

Picea omorika . . . . Serbian Spruce

Has characteristic pegs of spruce, but not spiny with flat needles

Picea orientalis . . . . Oriental Spruce

Needles <c.10 mm

Picea pungens . . . . Colorado (Blue) Spruce

Needles square in X-section; glaucous-blue foliage

Picea sitchensis . . . . Sitka Spruce

Needles very sharp and whitish (>15 mm); compare cones with P. abies in pic3

Pinaceae/Pinus . . . . . Pines

Needles predominantly in groups of 2, or 3 , or 5

Needles in Pairs:
P. contorta
P. sylvestris
P. nigra
P. pinea
Short needles
Short, blueish needles
Long needles
'Umbrella' tree form

Needles in 3s:
P. ponderosa
P. radiata
Needles wavy, yellowish
Cones large, asymmetric

Needles in 5s:
P. peuce
P. bhutanica
P. wallichiana
Needles fine, <12cm
Needles >12 cm, hanging
Needles >12 cm, droopy

Pinus contorta . . . . Lodgepole Pine

Frequent forestry tree but getting invasive; 6-8 cm bright green needles in pairs, twisted; cones have fine spines on the scales, cones retained on twigs for several years

Pinus nigra . . . . Corsican and Austrian Pine

Long dark green needles (>8-12cm or >10-18cm depending on subsp.), in pairs; widely planted - straight trunk dark brown all the way up

Pinus peuce . . . . Macedonian Pine

Fine lvs (<0.6 mm wide) in 5s; infrequently planted

Weymouth Pine (Pinus strobus) similarly has fine needles in groups of 5

Pinus pinea . . . . Stone Pine or umbrella Pine

Lvs in pairs, characteristic 'umbrella' shaped canopy; a mediterranean tree, infrequently planted, spherical cones (c.f. long cones of similar P. pinaster)

Pinus ponderosa . . . . Western Yellow-Pine

Leaves in 3s c.200 mm long, often kinked, cones with hard sharp spikes; planted in parks

Pinus radiata . . . . Monterey Pine

Leaves in 3s; commonly planted in CI, SW En and W Wa; cones large, uneven, persistent 7-14 cm

Pinus sylvestris . . . . Scots Pine

The only native pine; characteristic orange to upper parts of trunk; short (<8 cm) needles in pairs

Pinus wallichiana . . . . Bhutan or Blue Pine

Lvs in 5s, fine (c.0.6 mm wide) and long (>c.13 cm - c.f. P. bhutanica), drooping ; infrequently planted

A number of other spp. are widely planted

Pinaceae/Pseudotsuga . . . . . Douglas Firs

Needles borne singly, slightly flattened; cones characteristic with 3-points

Pseudotsuga menziesii . . . . Douglas Fir

Widely planted - readily recognised from the 3-toothed bracts on the cones, pointed buds and hanging branch tips

Pinaceae/Tsuga . . . . . Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla . . . . Western Hemlock

Characteristic variable sized leaves